Zmije Hrvatske           Snakes of Croatia            

 

Bjelica 

Zamenis longissimus
(Elaphe longissima)

Aesculapian Snake

 
 

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GDJE:

Čitava Hrvatska, neki otoci (Krk, Cres, Rab, Hvar, Brač, Mljet...)

 

 



*Ova vrsta zmije je vezana uz grčkog/rimskog boga liječenja Asklepija (Aeskulapa).

Opis:
Odrasli su do 200 cm (225 cm), ali obično oko 140 cm, mužjaci su veći od ženki (i imaju duži rep). Vrlo elegantna i vitka zmija s uskom glavom. Oči imaju okrugle zjenice. Odrasle jedinke mogu biti smeđkaste, sivkasto-zelenkaste, čak i crne boje (melanizam) (prvih  20-40 cm nekad svjetliji), s bijelim točkicama na rubovima ljusaka, naročito na polovici tijela. Trbuh je žut ili bijelkast, ljuske su grebenaste. Smeđkaste mogu imati žute pjege iza glave pa se može zamijeniti s bjelouškom. Vrlo slična talijanskoj bjeli
ci (Zamenis lineatus (prije Elaphe lineata)- J Italija). Također primijećen albinizam (potpuno bijele/žuto bijele- 1 2).
Mlade zmije imaju 4-7 redova malih crnih (smeđih) pjegica po tijelu i često tamni uzorak na vratu u obliku slova ''V'' ili ''U''.

Description:
Adults are up to 200 cm (225 cm), usually arround 140 cm, males longer than females (and have a longer tail). Av ery slender snake with a narrow head, eyes have round pupils. Adults can be brownish, greyish-greenish, even black (melanism) (first 20-40 cm can be a lighter colour) with white dots on the scale edges, especially on mid-body. Belly is yellow or whiteish, belly scales are keeled. Brownish coloured ones usually have yellow dots behind the head, so they can resemble a Grass Snake. Very similar to the Italian Aesculapian Snake
(Zamenis lineatus (formerly Elaphe lineata)- S Italy). Albinism (completely white/yellowish white- 1 2) also noticed.
Young have 4-7 rows of small black (brown) dots on body and often a dark V- or U- shaped pattern on the neck.

WHERE:

Whole Croatia, some islands (Krk, Cres, Rab, Hvar, Brač, Mljet...)

 

 



*This species of snake is associated with the Greek/Roman god of healing Asclepius (Aesculapius).

 

Br. ljusaka:
leđa- 23 (rijetko 21), trbuh- 211-250, rep- 60-91 para.
Muški su odrasli sa 100 cm, a ženke oko 85 cm.
Scale count:
back- 23 (rarely 21), belly- 211-250, tail- 60-91 pairs.
Males mature at 100 cm, females at around 85 cm.
Stanište:
Česte su ma suhim staništima, livade s grmljem i visokom travom, ali i kameni zidovi, kamenjari i stogovi sijena.
Habitat:
Often in dry habitats, meadows with bushes and high grass, but also stone walls, rocky terrain and hay.
Ponašanje:
Aktivna danju, nekad i vrlo toplim večerima. Volei se sunčati, ali bježei od velikih vrućina. Može biti vrlo brza. Vrlo se spretno i elegantno penje po drveću i grmlju, nekad ravno prema gore. Često bježi, nekad brže, nekad sporije, ali često se osjeća neugroženo od ljudi pa znade ostati na mjestu i ne micati se. Često grize kada ju se primi i pušta ''neugodan'' sadržaj kloakalne žlijezde (ništa opasno za zdravlje, bez mirisa, lako se pere...), ali se u prosjeku ubrzo smiri i pokaže svoju blagu narav. Gravidne (trudne) ženke su puno agresivnije.
Behaviour:
Diurnal, sometimes active into the night during hot days. Likes to bask, but flees from high temperatures. Can be very fast. Climbs very elegantly and skillfully on trees and bushes, sometimes straight up.Often flees from humans, sometimes faster, sometimes slower, but very often fells "comfortable" in human company and doesn't move. Often bites when handled and releases a
not-so-pleasant contents from a cloacal gland (nothing dangerous, no odour, easy to wash off...), but in average settles down quickly and shows its placid nature. Gravid females are more agro.

 


*S još nekim vrstama sudjeluje u vjerskom procesijom u središnjoj Italiji u gradu Cucullo (poslije ih vrate u prirodu).

 

Prehrana:
Miševi (po ljetnim vrućinama odrasla bjelica svaki treći dan ulovi jednog!), voluharice, nekad vjeverice, gušteri i ptići. Plijen davi.
Food:
Mice (during summer heats an adult can eat one every 3 days!), voles, sometimes sqirrels, lizards and nesting birds. Constricts its prey.




*With some other species it take part in a religious preocession in Central Italy  in the town of Cucullo (they release the snakes back into the wild afterwards).

 

Razmnožavanje:
U sezoni parenja, mužjaci su spremni ići i do 2 km za ženkom. Ženke legu 2-18 (često 5-11) izduženih, kruškolikih jaja (35-60 mm x 17-25 mm) pod zemljom, u rupama drveća i u komposištima i sl. (nekad zajedno s bjelouškom).
Živi 25-30 godina.
Reproduction:
During mating season males can go up to 2 km in search of females. Females lay 2-18 (often 5-11) elongated, pear-shaped eggs (35-60 mm x 17-25 mm) under ground, into holes in trees, compost heaps... (sometimes communally with the Grass Snake).
Can live 25-30 years.
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/ (slike)
www.ratsnakes.com/ (slike,
podaci- zastarjeli,)
www.reptilia.dk (podaci)
Links:
www.herp.it/ (pictures)
www.ratsnakes.com/ (info- out of date, pictures)
www.reptilia.dk (info)