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Planinski žutokrug

Vipera ursinii macrops

Orsini's Viper

 
 

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GDJE:

Dinara, J Velebit

Opis:
Odrasli su obično ispod 50 cm, vrlo rijetko iznad 60, ženke su veće nego mužjaci. Najmanja europska ljutica: mala, debela zmija uske glave, često ima mrki izgled. Najčešće se zamijeni s talijanskom ljuticom (Vipera aspis) i riđovkom. Od talijanske ljutice se razlikuje u tome da nema "njušku" uperenu prema gore i ljuske na glavi su uvijek velike i ima mali broj redova leđnih ljusaka. Od riđovke se razlikuje u tome što je manja, ima užu glavu sa zašiljenom "njuškom" i nekoliko razlika u ljuskama na glavi. Leđne ljuske u presjeku izgledaju poput vala, imaju izraženiji greben i često su kratke pa se vidi tamna koža od ispod. Te odrednice daju grubu "teksturu" žutokrugu. Uzorak često nije raznolik: obično je sivkast, blijedo smeđ ili žućkast s tamnom cik-cak šarom na leđima koja je obično obrubljena crno i može ponekad biti razlomljena u pjege. Bokovi su obično tamni. Trbuh može biti crnkast, bjelkast ili tamno sivi, čak roskast, sa ili bez pjega. Donja strana repa je ponekad tamna ili sa žutim uzorkom. Kod ove podvrste su mogući melanistički oblici (skroz crni).

Description:
Adults are usually less than 50 cm, rarely over 60, females are larger than males. The smallest European viper: a small, thick bodied snake, with a narrow head, often has a rough appearance. Only likely to be confused with the Asp Viper (
Vipera aspis) or Adder. Differs from Asp Viper in lacking an obvious upturned snout and always has several large scales on top of head and has a low number of dorsal scales. Differs from Adder in smaller adult size, has a narrower head with a more tapering snout and in several features in head scaling. Dorsals are wavy in cross-section, have a distinct keel and are often rather short so dark skin between them is visible. These features give the snake a rough texture. Pattern is often not very variable: usually greyish, pale brown or yellowish with a dark zig-zag dorsal stripe that is usually edged with black and can be occasionally broken into spots. Flanks often rather dark, belly can be blackish, whiteish or dark grey, even pinkish, with or without spots. Underside of tail is sometimes dark or with yellow markings.

WHERE:

Dinara, S Velebit

 

- neki autori svrstavaju planinskog žutokruga kao zasebnu vrstu: Vipera macrops, ali to nije tako.

 

 

Stanište:
Planinski žutokrug je planinska forma Sreće ih se na visinama preko 1 000 m nadmorske visine. Živi na brdima s dobrom "drenažom", nešto vegetacije, ali češće na visokim često suhim, livadama.
Habitat:
V. u. macrops
is a mountain form, occuring above 1000 m above sea level. Lives on well drained hill sides with some vegetation, but more often encountered on high, often dry, meadows.

 

- some authors regard them as a separate species: Vipera macrops, but that isn't true.

 

 

Ponašanje:
Planinski žutokrug je pomalo živčana zmija (a tko ne bi bio da ima manje od 100g i nešto ogromno ti ne da mira?), hoće gristi ako ga se uznemirava. U neuznemirenim staništima može biti relativno česta (ali to je ipak rijetko u usporedbi s ostalim vrstama).
Behaviour:
The Karst Meadow Viper is a somewhat nervous snake (and who wouldn't be when you weigh less than 100g and something enormous just won't leave you alone?), will bite if molested. In undisturbed areas can be quite common (but that's still rare when compared to other species).
Prehrana:
Pretežito se hrani skakavcima (našlo se i do 100 komada po zmiji). Plijen često guta živ rađe nego da ga otruje, ali i to se dešava.
Food:
Feeds mainly on grasshoppers (up to a hundred have been found in a single snake). Prey is often swallowed alive rather than envenomated, but that does occur.
- moguća je prisutnost jedinki podvrste Vipera ursinii rakosiensis (nizinska podvrsta) na granici uz Mađarsku, ali potrebna su dodatna istraživanja da bi se to potvrdilo ili opovrglo. Razmnožavanje:
Leže 2-5 malih. Bebe su 12-15 cm duge.  
Reproduction:
V. u. macrops lays 2-5 young. Babys are 12-15 cm long.
- posible presence of Vipera ursinii rakosiensis subspecies (lowland ssp.) on the border with Hungary, but aditional research is needed to confirm or disprove that.
Otrov:
Slabiji od svih ostalih europskih ljutica. To, zajedno s blagim i mirnim temperamentom, čini žutokruga najmanje opasnom europskom ljuticom, ali zbog moguće zamjene s opasnijim riđovkama (V. berus berus i V. b bosniensis) ipak treba postupati prema njima s poštovanjem.
Kod ljudi izaziva lokalnu bol i oticanje. U osjetljivih osoba može se javiti mučnina i povraćanje, ali oporavak je obično brz. Nisu zabilježeni smrtni slučajevi.
Venom:
Weaker than that of the other vipers. That in combination with it's placid disposition makes Orsini's Viper the least dangerous European viper, but with possible misidentification with more dangerous Adders (
V. berus berus and V. b bosniensis
) they should still be treated with respect.
In humans, a bite causes local pain and swelling. In more sensitive persons can cause nausea and throwing up, but recovery is usually swift. No deaths have been recorded.
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/ (slike)
Links:
www.herp.it/ (pictures)