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GDJE:

Obalno područje, na S do Istre, mnogi otoci

Opis:
Do oko 116 cm, ali obično kraća, ženke su veće od mužjaka. Prilično vitka zmija s karakterističnim rasporedom uzoraka. Glava je uska, ali izražena, okrugle zjenice i glatke ljuske. Odrasli zadrže uzorak mladih, koji se često sastoji od reda crno obrubljenih smeđih ili crvenih pjega na leđima i red manjih pjega na bokovima. Uzorak na leđima može biti vrlo raznolik. Temeljna boja tijela je sivkasta, žućkasta ili sjajna. Trbuh je žućkasto sjajan kraj glave, ali postaje tamniji prema repu, tako da je sredina i stražnji dio trbuha često većinom crn. Glava je jasno obojana s tamnim crtama.

Description:
Up to 116 cm, but usually less, females are larger than males. A fairly slender snake with a characteristic range of patterns. Head is narrow, but well-defined, round pupils and smooth scales. Adults retain the pattern of young, which often consists ofa row of black-edged  brown or red spots on back and a row of smaller spots on each flank. Pattern on back can vary greatly.  Body colour is greyish, yellowish or buff. Belly is yellowish-buff near head, but becomes heavily marked towards tail, so that the middle and hind belly is often largely black. Head is boldly marked with dark stripes.

WHERE:

Coastal area, in the N to Istria, many islands

Br. ljusaka:
27 (nekad 25) leđnih, 215-255 trbušnih i 54-92 para podrepnih.
Scale count:
27 (occasionally 25) back scales, 215-255 belly scales and 54-92 pairs of subcaudals.
Stanište:
Pretežito zmija koja živi na zemlji, karakteristična za sredozemnu makiju i obično ju se nađe ispod 500 m nadmorske visine, ali može i do 1600 m. Obično je na osunčanim staništima, naročito na onima koji imaju kamenje i nešto vegetacije: rubovi polja, rubovi cesta, hrpe kamenja, padine s kamenjem, suhozidovi, ponekad močvare i obale potoka. Može ju se susresti i u ljudskim staništima: vrtovi, vinogradi, maslenici, groblja, oko štala i kuća, u koje ponekad uđe.
Habitat:
A largely terrestrial snake characteristic of Mediterranean maccia and usually found below 500 m, but also up to 1600 m. Usually in suny habitats, especially those that including numerous rocks and some plant cover: field-edges, road banks, stone-piles, screes, dry-stone walls, also sometimes marshes and stream edges. May be encountered in human habitats including gardens, vineyards, olive groves, cemeteries and around barns and houses which it sometimes enters.
Ponašanje:
Aktivna danju, ponekad i u sumrak. Relativno se sporo kreće, ali se spretno penje po hrpama kamenja, zidovima i grmlju, gdje ju se često može vidjeti kako leži i izbjegava visoku temperaturu na zemlji. Hoće gristi kada ju se primi, ali se ukipi kad ju se uznemiri. Ponekad brzo vibrira vrh repa u lišću i tako stvara zvuk čegrtaljke.
Behaviour:
Diurnal, but sometimes active at dusk. Relatively slow moving but climbs well on stone-piles, walls and bushes where often seen draped over branches avoiding high ground temperatures. Frequently bites when handled, but may remain still when disturbed. Sometimes vibrates tail rapidly among leaves making a rattling noise.
Prehrana:
Veliki plijen može daviti, ali manji je pritisnut uz zemlju prije gutanja. Odrasli se skoro samo prehranjuju sisavcima i njihovim mladima (mali glodavci, ponekad rovke...),  ponekad pticama i gmazovima. Mladi se hrane gušterima.
Food:
Larger prey may be constricted but small food items are pressed against the ground before being swallowed. Food of adults consists almost entirely of mammals and their nestlings (small rodents, occasoinally shrews...), sometimes they eat birds and reptiles. Young feed on lizards.
Razmnožavanje:
Parenje može trajati i nekoliko sati tijekom kojeg mužjaci grizu ženke za vrat. Ženke se vjerojatno pare svake druge godine i polažu 2-8 velikih cilindričnih jaja (35-70mm x 10-22mm) iz kojih se nakon 6-9 tjedana izlegnu mladi veličine 29-36 cm i treba im vjerojatno 3 godine (ili više) da dostignu spolnu zrelost.
Živi i do 25 godina u zarobljeništvu.
Reproduction:
Mating may take some hours during which the males bite the neck of their mates. Females may possibly breed every other year when they lay 2-8 large cylindrical eggs (35-70mm x 10-22mm). The eggs hatch in 6-9 weeks and babies are 29-36 cm long and probably take 3 or more years to reach maturity.
Has lived 25 years in captivity.
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/ (slike)
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/ (photos)