Zmije Hrvatske           Snakes of Croatia            

 

Poskok

Vipera ammodytes ammodytes

Nose-horned Viper

 

Početna stranica

Popis
vrsta

galerija

 


Home
Page

List of 
Species

gallery

 


 

GDJE:

Cijelo područje Hrvatske na pogodnim staništima, neki otoci (Krk, Pag, Korčula, Hvar, Brač, Vir...)







Opis:
Odrasli su prosječno od 60 do 80 cm, mužjaci su veći od ženki i mogu narasti do 100 cm. Jedina istočnoeuropska otrovnica s rošćićem na nosu. Tijelo je relativno debelo. Mužjaci su sivkasti, ženke su smeđe, sivosmeđe, crvenosmeđe.
Rijetko žuti (1), roskasti ili zelenkasti. Melanizam (potpuno crne jedinke) je krajnje rijedak. Na leđima je tamna (crna, smeđe-crna) linija koja tvori cik-cak šaru (ne mora biti kontinuirano spojena). Samo je u rijetkim slučajevima šara blijeda ili kao crta. Trbuh je roza, sivkast, pjegast (tamno). Donja strana repa je crvena, narančasta, roza, zelena, žućkasta... Leđne ljuske imaju greben.

Description:
Adults are usually between 60-80 cm, males larger than females and can reach 100 cm. The only eastern European snake with a distinct nose-horn. Body relatively stout. Males are greyish, females are brownish, greyish-brown, reddish-brown. Rarely yellow (
1), pinkish or greenish. Melanism (entirely black individuals) is very rare. A dark (black, brown-black) line that forms a zig-zag on back (doesn't have to be continuously connected). Only in rare cases is the zig-zag pale or more as a line. Belly is pink, greyish, spotted (darkly). Underside of tail is red, orange, pink, green, yellowish... Back scales are keeled.

WHERE:

Whole of Croatia on good habitats, some islands (Krk, Pag, Korčula, Hvar, Brač, Vir...)







*Mnogi ljudi tvrde da poskoci skaču, što nije točno. Debeli su zbog sala, pa nemaju dovoljnu mišićnu snagu za to (ali ipak jako brzo grizu!). Taj "mit" je vjerojatno nastao kada su se ljudi po noći šetali po kamenjaru u ljeti kraj nekog grma ili drveta na kojeg se poskok popeo, pa kad ih je ugrizao, kako nisu dobro vidjeli, rekli su da skače. To je jedna verzija.

Postoje 3 podvrste u Europi: V. a. meridionalis (jug Balkana), V. a. montadoni (istočna Rumunjska, Bugarska, europski dio Turske), V. a. ammodytes (Hrvatska, ostali djelovi rasprostranjenosti) i 1 podvrsta u Aziji- V. a. transcaucasiana. There are 3 subspecies in Europe: V. a. meridionalis (S Balkans; maybe arround Dubrovnik & Konavle?), V. a. montadoni (E Romania, Bulgaria, european Turkey), V. a. ammodytes (Croatia, all other parts of distribution) and 1 in Asia- V. a. transcaucasiana.

*A lot of people say that Nose- horneds can jump, which is not true. They are a fat snake because of their body fat, so they don't have enough muscle power for that (but they can still strike very fast). That "myth" came into being probably while people were walking at night in summer near dry-stone walls, above which was a bush or tree on which the Nose-horned climbed, so when they got bit, since they couldn't see well because of the darkness, they thought it jumped. That is one version.

Stanište:
Najviše voli suha osunčana područja s nešto vegetacije i kamenja (suhozidovi, hrpe kamenja, salonitne ploče, livade sa gustim niskim grmljem- polušikare...).
Habitat:
Most favourite are dry sunny habitats with some vegetation and rocks (rock-piles, dry-stone walls, meadows with dense low bushes...).
Ponašanje:
Povremeno se penje po niskom grmlju i drveću (sunčanje, traži ptice), u kamenim zidovima traži guštere. U proljeće i jesen aktivan danju, a po ljeti aktivniji u sumrak i noću. Relativno spor, ali brz po potrebi, često kad ga se iznenadi ili sikće i/ili bježi ili se ukipi. Iako ga se može lagano razbjesniti, rijetko se brani ugrizom.
Behaviour:
Occasionally climbs low bushes and trees (in search of nesting birds, sunning), in dry-stone walls searching for lizards. In Spring and Autumn active by day, in Summer more active during dusk and night. Relatively slow, but fast if needed, often when surprised hisses and/or runs, or stays perfectly still. Although it's very easy to make them mad, rarely bites.
Prehrana:
Prehranjuje se miševima, gušterima, ptićima, drugim zmijama. Mladi se prehranjuju i kukcima.
Food:
Feeds on mice, lizards, nesting birds and their young, other snakes. Young feed on lizards, insects, mice.

*Poskok star 2 god. (oko 30-40 cm) već lovi odrasle miševe.

*Poskoci su vrsta koju mogu razlikovati pojedinca od pojedinca. Razlikujem ih po uzorku cik-cak šare. Kod nekih sam primjetio sličnosti u šari. Da li to znači da neki dio cik-cak šare genetski naslijeđuju?


*A Nose- horned that is 2 years old (arround 30 cm) already eats adult mice.

 

*Nose-horneds can be told appart one individual from another by their zig-zag pattern. I noticed similarities. Does that imply a genetic relation or heritage?

Razmnožavanje:
Parenje se odvija krajem travnja i u svibnju (20-30 dana). Ženke rađaju žive mlade (4-15(20)), 15-18(23) cm) krajem kolovoza ili u rujnu. Od prvih minuta života u "vanjskom" svijetu imaju otrov.
Reproduction:
Mating takes place on the end of April and in May (20-30 days). Females give birth to live young (4-15(20), 15-18(23) cm) by the end of August or September. From the moment of their birth they are equipped with venom.
Otrov:
Europska najopasnija otrovnica što se tiče otrova, u prošlosti čak i smrtonosan (danas jako rijetki smrtni slučajevi, normalno boravak od oko tjedan dana u bolnici, teški simptomi trovanja). Očnjaci mogu biti i 1 cm dugi. Ugriženo mjesto jako naotekne, jako boli.
Po jačini otrova (u Hrvatskoj) na prvom mjestu su poskoci u okolici Slunja, onda su velebitski, pa zagrebački i na četvrtom mjestu su krapinski.
Venom:
Europe's most venomous snake, in the past caused regular human deaths (today that possibility is rare, normally about a week's stay in hospital, severe symptoms of poisoning). Fangs can be up to 1 cm long. Dramatic swelling of the bite site, hurts a lot.
By venom strength (in Croatia), populations around Slunj have the most potent venom. Second are those on Velebit, third are those around Zagreb and furth are those around Krapina.
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/
Links:
www.herp.it/
 

*Poskok se boji vode i ne voli se smočiti osim ako nije pitanje života i smrti, pa ga se može otjerati i tako da ga se pošprica običnom vodom. Nekad je i jedna kapljica dovoljna.

 

*A Nose- horned is very scared of water and doesn't like to get wet unless it's a life and death situation, so they can be scared off by splashing them with fresh water. Sometimes even one drop is enough.