Zmije Hrvatske           Snakes of Croatia            

 

Smukulja

Coronella austriaca

Smooth Snake

 
 

Početna stranica

Popis
vrsta

 

galerija

 

 

 

Home
Page

List of 
Species

 

gallery

 

 

 

GDJE: Čitava Hrvatska, neki otoci (Brač, Krk, Cres, Mljet...)

Opis:
Odrasli su obično do 70 (75) cm, nekad preko 80 cm. Ženke su veće od mužjaka. Zjenica je okrugla, glatke ljuske. Obično sivkasta, smeđkasta, roskasta, nekad i crvenkasta. Ženke su sivije od mužjaka (obično smeđi). Po tijelu ima 2 reda tamnih (smeđih, crnih) pjega, iza glave obično malo veće mrlje (nekad u obliku rogova). Na bočnoj strani glave prolazi tamna pruga od nosnice preko oka do vrata. Trbuh je crvenkast, narančast, siv ili crnkast, nekad s pjegicama.

Description:
Adults are usually up to 70 (75) cm, sometimes over 80 cm. Females larger than males. The pupil is round, scales are smooth. Usually greyish, brownish, pinkish, sometimes reddish. Females are greyer than males (usually brown). Has 2 rows of dark (brown, black) spots on back, behind head usually larger blotches (sometimes horn-shaped). Has a dark line from nostril over the eye towards neck. Belly is reddish, orange, grey or blackish, sometimes with spots.

WHERE: Whole Croatia, some islands (Brač, Krk, Cres, Mljet...)

Br. ljusaka:
leđa- 19 (rijetko 17-21), trbuh- 150-182 (m)/170-200 (ž), rep- 41-70.
Scale count:
back- 19 (rarely 17-21), belly- 150-182 (m)/170-200 (f), tail- 41-70.
Stanište:
Može ju se naći na grmovitim, travnatim padinama, kamenjarima (navodno čak i u vinogradima), suhim, ali i vlažnim staništima. Voli se grijati ispod vegetacije, limova (...), ali izbjegava velike vrućine. Zbog toga je češće aktivna u hladnijim dijelovima dana, toplim oblačnim danima.
Habitat:
Can be found on bushes, grassy slopes, rocky terrain (suposedly also in vineyards), dry, but also moist habitats. Likes to heat up under vegetation, metal sheets (...), but avoids high temperatures. Because of that more often active in cooler parts of the day, in warm cloudy days.
Ponašanje:
Vrlo tajnovita zmija, aktivna danju. Za toplijeg vremena aktivna i noću. Po danu se ne kreće puno (13 - 100 m). Može se penjati po gustom niskom grmlju. Relativno spora i flegmatična, ali u rukama često grize, čak i ako se ne osjeća ugroženom (ugriz je potpuno bezopasan i ne boli, ali po mom mišljenu i osobnom iskustvu ima jači stisak od bjelice iste veličine). Također kao i bjelouška pušta sekret neugodna mirisa (miris je puno slabijeg intenziteta od bjelouške). 
Behaviour:
A very secretiv snake, diurnal. During hotter days can be active by night. During the day it doesn't travel much (13-100 m). Can climb in dense low bushes. Relatively slow and flegmatic, but bites often when handled, even whenit doesn't feel threatened (bite is harmless, does not hurt, but in my oppinion and personal experience has a stronger bite than an Aesculapian Snake of the same size). Also like the Grass Snake, releases a foul smelling secretion (a lot less intense than the Grass Snake's).
Prehrana:
Ne "trči" za plijenom, traži ga po mirisu do njegovog skrovišta i tamo se hrani. Veći plijen omota tijelom. Većinom se hrani gušterima (često 70% prehrane!) (posebno veličine običnog zelembaća napola izraslog u dužinu), sljepići i skinkovi, mali sisavci (i njihove bebe), male zmije (čak male ljutice!), jaja gmazova i ptići. Ženke se češće hrane nečim drugim, a ne gušterima. Bebe i mladi se hrane kukcima i gušterima.
Food:
Does not "run" after prey, but hunts it down by its scent to its hidingplace and feeds there. Throws coils arround larger prey. Mostly feeds on lizards (often 70% of diet!) (especially the size of a half grown Green Lizard), Slow Worms and Skinks, small mammals (and their young), small snakes (even Vipers!), reptile and nesting bird eggs. Females usually eat something else than lizards. Young feed on insects and lizards.
Razmnožavanje:
U sezoni parenja (proljeće), mužjaci se bore. Parenje traje nekoliko sati. Kote 2 - 16 (rijetko 19) živih malih. Na jugu se pare opet na ljeto i mlade nose kroz zimski san i kote na proljeće. Na sjeveru ženke se pare svake 2 - 3 god. Mužjaci sazriju za 2.5-3 god. (jug) i 4 god. (sjever). Ženkama treba dulje. Nekad žive i 18 godina u prirodi.
Reproduction:
During mating season (spring) males fight each other. Mating lasts several hours. Females give birth to 2-16 (rarely 19) live young. In South mate again in Summer and carry young thorugh hibernation and give birth in Spring. In the North females mate every 2-3 years. Males mature in 2.5-3 years (in South) and 4 years (in North). Females take longer. Sometimes lives up to 18 years in the wild.
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/ (slike)
Links:
www.herp.it/ (pictures)