Zmije Hrvatske           Snakes of Croatia            

 

Bjelouška
obična
prugasta
švicarska

Natrix natrix
Natrix natrix natrix
Natrix natrix persa
Natrix natrix helvetica

Grass Snake

 
 

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GDJE:

Cijela Hrvatska, neki otoci (Krk, Cres, Rab, Pag, Šolta, Korčula, Dugi Otok, Plavnik...)

Opis:
Prosječno velika 150 cm, ali može i oko 200 cm (N. n. helvetica), ženke su veće od mužjaka (deblje, do 2 puta dulje!). Odrasli primjerci imaju okruglastu glavu, okrugle zjenice. Boja vrlo varira (crno-siva-tamno plava, smeđa, maslinasto siva, mogu biti prisutne crne pjege, nekad svjetle pruge...), ali mnogi primjerci imaju 2 bijele/žute/narančaste pjege (nekad crne) iza glave. Mladi se mogu zamijeniti s bebama bjelica zbog sličnog uzorka. Leđne ljuske imaju greben po sredini. U Europi živi 12 podvrsta
*(vidi marginu) (u Hrvatskoj N. n. natrix, N. n. persa (do ca. 150 cm) i N. n. helvetica (do ca. 200 cm, samo na području Istre te više nadmorske visine), ali radi jednostavnosti se sve zapadne podvrste stavljaju pod N. n. helvetica, a sve istočne pod N. n. natrix.

Description:
Averages 150 cm in length, but can reach arround 200 cm (N. n. helvetica), females are bigger than males (fatter, up to 2x longer!). Adults have a round head, round pupils. Colour varies (black-blue-dark grey, brown, olive grey, can have black dots, sometimes light stripes...), but a lot have 2 white/orange/yellow spots (sometimes black) behind head. Young can be confused with baby Aesculapian Snakes because of similar pattern. Back scales are keeled in the middle. In Europe there are 12 subspecies
*(see margin) (in Croatia N. n. natrix, N. n. persa (up to ca. 150 cm) and N. n. helveica (up to ca. 200 cm, Istria and higher altitudes), but all W subspecies are put under N .n helvetica and all E subspecies under N. n. natrix.

WHERE:

Whole Croatia, some islands (Krk, Cres, Rab, Pag, Šolta, Korčula, Dugi Otok, Plavnik...)

 

*Dosadašnja klasifikacija podvrsta će biti izmijenjena po rezultatima novih istraživanja

*Postoji mit da bjelouške vole piti mlijeko, čak da mogu "pomusti" cijelu kravu, ali to je samo mit.


*U Dalmaciji (a i drugdje!) ljudi ostavljaju rupu u pragu i unutra stave mlijeko da bi privukli bjeloušku. Tu metodu koriste da bi se "zaštitili" od otrovnica, koje ona tjera.

 

 

 

*Teritorij pojedinačne bjelouške može biti 3 - 120 hektara, u kojem mogu proći 10 - 300 m u danu.

 

*Na obalama rijeka često ima jedna bjelouška na svakih par metara.

Br. ljusaka:
leđa- 19 (grebenaste).
Scale count:
back- 19 (keeled).

 

*The current subspecies classification will be changed according to new research results.

*There is a myth that Grass Snakes like to drink milk, that they can even "milk" a cow, but that is just a myth.

*In Dalmatia (and other places) people leave a hole in their porch and they put milk inside so that they attract Grass Snakes. This method is used as "protection" against venomous species, which she chases off.

 


*Ranges can be 3-120 hectares, in which they travel 10-300 m per day.

 


*On riverbanks there is often 1 "Grassy" every few meters.

Stanište:
Voli vlažna mjesta, ali se može naći i dalje od vode. Voli livade s jako gustom (često dubokom) travom.
Habitat:
Loves damp place, but can be found further away from water. Likes meadows with very dense (often deep) grass.
Ponašanje:
Aktivna danju, nekad u sumrak za vrijeme vrućeg vremena na jugu. Na Sardiniji navodno aktivne noću. Savršeno pliva, prosječno roni do 15 min. Kada se uznemiri sikće jako glasno i baca se, ali ne grize! Ako to ne uspije, pravi se mrtvom tako da se okrene na leđa, otvori usta, isplazi jezik  (nekad pusti malo krvi) i luči sekret "neugodna" mirisa iz analne žlijezde (miriši kao crkotina, teško se pere!). To ćešće rade (po mom iskustvu!) jedinke velike 1 m na više nego male. Kada ju se primi često izbaci "sadržaj" crijeva.
Ponekad jako dobro glumi kobru (raširi glavu, uzdigne prednji dio tijela, bacaka se, ali ni tad ne grize).
Behaviour:
Active by day, sometimes at night during hot weather in S. In Sardinia presumably active by night. A perfect swimmer, can dive for up to 15 min on average. When disturbed hisses wildly and throws its body, but it doesn't bite! If that doesn't work, it plays dead by turning on its back, opening its mouth, sticks its tongue out (sometimes lets out a little blood) and voids smelling contents of anal gland (smells like a carcas, difficult to wash out!). By my experience, individuals 1 m or longer do it more often than young ones. When handled often empties its bowels of their "contents".
Sometimes does a very good impression of a cobra (spreads the head, lifts fore part of body, thrashes about, but still doesn't bite).
Prehrana:
Žabe, krastače, vodenjaci, ribe, punoglavci, nekad mali sisavci, puževi golaći, ptići, druge zmije, čak i daždevnjaci. Bebe se hrane punoglavcima i beskralježnjacima.
Food:
Feeds on frogs, toads, fish, newts, tadpoles, sometimes small mammals, slugs, nestling birds, other snakes, even salamanders. Young feed mainly on tadpoles and invertebrates.
Razmnožavanje:
Mužjaci potencijalne partnerice trljaju bradom i nekoliko mužjaka (nekad čak 22!) može formirati "loptu" oko ženke (kao i kod anakonde!) i hrvaju se svojim repovima. Parenje može trajati i 3 sata, ženke se često pare samo jedanput. 2-5 tjedana kasnije ženke polažu 2-105 (prosječno 30-40) bijelih jaja koja se zalijepe zajedno i nabubre pa su krajnje veličine od 20 mm do 40 mm. Jaja polažu u rupe i pukotine, hodnike sisavaca, ispod kamenja i trupaca, ali često i u komposištima i hrpama gnojiva (prirodnog!), lišća (trulog) i drugog bilja (također hrpe algi izbačene na obalu). Nekad koriste isijavanje topline iz peći u zidovima kuća. Nekad ih može biti i 3000-4000 (zajedno s jajima od maurske vodarice, ribarice i bjelice). Inkubacija traje 6-10 tjedana na jugu. Kada se izlegnu, velike su 14-22 cm.
Mužjaci su odrasli s (30) 40 - 50 cm (3 god.), a ženke sa 60 cm (≈ 5 god.). 
Mogu živjeti 28 god. u prirodi.
Reproduction:
Males rub potential partners with their chins and several males (up to 22!) can form a "mating ball" arround the female (similar to the Anaconda!) and wrestle with their tails. Mating can last up to 3 hours, females tend to mate only once. 2-5 weeks later, females lay 2-105 (in average ca. 30-40) white eggs that stick together and swell up so they can be 20-40 mm. Eggs are layed in holes and cracks, mammal burrows, under rocks and logs, often in compost and dung heaps, rotting vegetation (sometimes even clumps of seaweed dumped on the coast). Sometimes they can use the heat radiatind from ovens in house walls. There can sometimes be as many as 3000-4000 (layed communally with the Viperine, Dice and Aesculapian Snakes). Incubation lasts 6-10 weeks in S. Hatchlings are 14-22 cm long. Males mature at about (30) 40-50 cm (≈ 3 years), females at about 60 cm (≈ 5 years). 

Can live 28 years in the wild.
Linkovi:
www.herp.it/ (slike)
www.reptilia.dk
(podaci)
www.arkive.org/ (podaci, slike, video)
www.herpetofauna.co.uk/ (podaci)
www.naturephoto-cz.com/ (slike)
www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/ (podaci)
Links:
www.herp.it/ (pictures)
www.reptilia.dk
(info)
www.arkive.org/ (info, pictures, video)
www.herpetofauna.co.uk/ (info)
www.naturephoto-cz.com/ (pictures)
www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/ (info)